Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935) was a prominent sociologist, novelist, and writer of short stories, poetry, and nonfiction. In the short story "If I Were a Man", a married woman named Mollie Mathewson yearns with all her heart to be a man and is suddenly transported into the body and mind of her husband, Gerald. Through the character of Mollie, Gilman illustrates the roles and attitudes of women in early 19th-century society.
The utopian novel Herland (1915) describes an isolated society composed entirely of women, with an ideal social order free of war, conflict, and domination. The theme of Herland is the role, definition, and perception of gender.